Statistical and charting functions
You can use the statistical and charting functions with the
chart
,
stats
, and
timechart
commands.
The functions can also be used with related statistical and charting commands. The following table lists the commands supported by the statistical and charting functions and the related command that can also use these functions.
Command  Supported related commands 

chart


stats


timechart

Functions that you can use to create sparkline charts are noted in the documentation for each function. Sparkline is a function that applies to only the chart
and stats
commands, and allows you to call other functions. For more information, see Add sparklines to search results in the Search Manual.
How field values are processed
Most of the statistical and charting functions expect the field values to be numbers. All of the values are processed as numbers, and any nonnumeric values are ignored.
The following functions process the field values as literal string values, even though the values are numbers.




For example, you use the distinct_count
function and the field contains values such as "1", "1.0", and "01". Each value is considered a distinct string value.
The only exceptions are the max
and min
functions. These functions process values as numbers if possible. For example, the values "1", "1.0", and "01" are processed as the same numeric value.
Supported functions and syntax
There are two ways that you can see information about the supported statistical and charting functions:
Function list by category
The following table is a quick reference of the supported statistical and charting functions, organized by category. This table provides a brief description for each functions. Use the links in the table to learn more about each function and to see examples.
Type of function  Supported functions and syntax  Description 

Aggregate functions  avg(X)

Returns the average of the values in the field X. 
count(X)

Returns the number of occurrences where the field that you specify contains any value (is not empty. You can also count the occurrences of a specific value in the field by using the eval command with the count function. For example: count eval(field_name="value") .
 
distinct_count(X)

Returns the count of distinct values in the field X.  
estdc(X)

Returns the estimated count of the distinct values in the field X.  
estdc_error(X)

Returns the theoretical error of the estimated count of the distinct values in the field X. The error represents a ratio of the absolute_value(estimate_distinct_count  real_distinct_count)/real_distinct_count .
 
max(X)

Returns the maximum value of the field X. If the values of X are nonnumeric, the maximum value is found using lexicographical ordering. This function processes field values as numbers if possible, otherwise processes field values as strings.  
mean(X)

Returns the arithmetic mean of the field X.  
median(X)

Returns the middlemost value of the field X.  
min(X)

Returns the minimum value of the field X. If the values of X are nonnumeric, the minimum value is found using lexicographical ordering.  
mode(X)

Returns the most frequent value of the field X.  
percentile<X>(Y)

Returns the Xth percentile value of the numeric field Y. Valid values of X are integers from 1 to 99.
 
range(X)

Returns the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the field X ONLY IF the values of X are numeric.  
stdev(X)

Returns the sample standard deviation of the field X.  
stdevp(X)

Returns the population standard deviation of the field X.  
sum(X)

Returns the sum of the values of the field X.  
sumsq(X)

Returns the sum of the squares of the values of the field X.  
var(X)

Returns the sample variance of the field X.  
varp(X)

Returns the population variance of the field X.  
Event order functions  first(X)

Returns the first seen value of the field X. In general, the first seen value of the field is the most recent instance of this field, relative to the input order of events into the stats command. 
last(X)

Returns the last seen value of the field X. In general, the last seen value of the field is the oldest instance of this field relative to the input order of events into the stats command.  
Multivalue stats and chart functions  list(X)

Returns a list of up to 100 values of the field X as a multivalue entry. The order of the values reflects the order of input events. 
values(X)

Returns the list of all distinct values of the field X as a multivalue entry. The order of the values is lexicographical.  
Time functions  earliest(X)

Returns the chronologically earliest (oldest) seen occurrence of a value of a field X. 
earliest_time(X)

Returns the UNIX time of the earliest (oldest) occurrence of a value of the field. Used in conjunction with earliest(x) , latest(x) , and latest_time(x) to calculate the rate of increase for an accumulating counter.
 
latest(X)

Returns the chronologically latest (most recent) seen occurrence of a value of a field X.  
latest_time(X)

Returns the UNIX time of the latest (most recent) occurrence of a value of the field. Used in conjunction with earliest(x) , earliest_time(x) , and latest(x) to calculate the rate of increase for an accumulating counter.
 
per_day(X)

Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each day.  
per_hour(X)

Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each hour.  
per_minute(X)

Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each minute.  
per_second(X)

Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each second.  
rate(X)

Returns the persecond rate change of the value of the field. Represents (latest(X)  earliest(X)) / (latest_time(X)  earliest_time(X)) Requires the earliest(X) and latest(X) values of the field to be numerical, and the earliest_time(X) and latest_time(X) values to be different.
 
rate_avg(X)

Returns the average rates for the time series associated with a specified accumulating counter metric.  
rate_sum(X)

Returns the summed rates for the time series associated with a specified accumulating counter metric. 
Alphabetical list of functions
The following table is a quick reference of the supported statistical and charting functions, organized alphabetically. This table provides a brief description for each function. Use the links in the table to learn more about each function and to see examples.
Supported functions and syntax  Description  Type of function 

avg(X)

Returns the average of the values in the field X.  Aggregate functions 
count(X)

Returns the number of occurrences where the field that you specify contains any value (is not empty. You can also count the occurrences of a specific value in the field by using the eval command with the count function. For example: count eval(field_name="value") .

Aggregate functions 
distinct_count(X)

Returns the count of distinct values in the field X.  Aggregate functions 
earliest(X)

Returns the chronologically earliest (oldest) seen occurrence of a value of a field X.  Time functions 
earliest_time(X)

Returns the UNIX time of the earliest (oldest) occurrence of a value of the field. Used in conjunction with earliest(x) , latest(x) , and latest_time(x) to calculate the rate of increase for an accumulating counter.

Time functions 
estdc(X)

Returns the estimated count of the distinct values in the field X.  Aggregate functions 
estdc_error(X)

Returns the theoretical error of the estimated count of the distinct values in the field X. The error represents a ratio of the absolute_value(estimate_distinct_count  real_distinct_count)/real_distinct_count .

Aggregate functions 
first(X)

Returns the first seen value of the field X. In general, the first seen value of the field is the most recent instance of this field, relative to the input order of events into the stats command.  Event order functions 
last(X)

Returns the last seen value of the field X. In general, the last seen value of the field is the oldest instance of this field relative to the input order of events into the stats command.  Event order functions 
latest(X)

Returns the chronologically latest (most recent) seen occurrence of a value of a field X.  Time functions 
latest_time(X)

Returns the UNIX time of the latest (most recent) occurrence of a value of the field. Used in conjunction with earliest(x) , earliest_time(x) , and latest(x) to calculate the rate of increase for an accumulating counter.

Time functions 
list(X)

Returns a list of up to 100 values of the field X as a multivalue entry. The order of the values reflects the order of input events.  Multivalue stats and chart functions 
max(X)

Returns the maximum value of the field X. If the values of X are nonnumeric, the maximum value is found using lexicographical ordering. This function processes field values as numbers if possible, otherwise processes field values as strings.  Aggregate functions 
mean(X)

Returns the arithmetic mean of the field X.  Aggregate functions 
median(X)

Returns the middlemost value of the field X.  Aggregate functions 
min(X)

Returns the minimum value of the field X. If the values of X are nonnumeric, the minimum value is found using lexicographical ordering.  Aggregate functions 
mode(X)

Returns the most frequent value of the field X.  Aggregate functions 
percentile<X>(Y)

Returns the Xth percentile value of the numeric field Y. Valid values of X are integers from 1 to 99.

Aggregate functions 
per_day(X)

Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each day.  Time functions 
per_hour(X)

Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each hour.  Time functions 
per_minute(X)

Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each minute.  Time functions 
per_second(X)

Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each second.  Time functions 
range(X)

Returns the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the field X ONLY IF the values of X are numeric.  Aggregate functions 
rate(X)

Returns the persecond rate change of the value of the field. Represents (latest(X)  earliest(X)) / (latest_time(X)  earliest_time(X)) Requires the earliest(X) and latest(X) values of the field to be numerical, and the earliest_time(X) and latest_time(X) values to be different.

Time functions 
rate_avg(X)

Returns the average rates for the time series associated with a specified accumulating counter metric.  Time functions 
rate_sum(X)

Returns the summed rates for the time series associated with a specified accumulating counter metric.  Time functions 
stdev(X)

Returns the sample standard deviation of the field X.  Aggregate functions 
stdevp(X)

Returns the population standard deviation of the field X.  Aggregate functions 
sum(X)

Returns the sum of the values of the field X.  Aggregate functions 
sumsq(X)

Returns the sum of the squares of the values of the field X.  Aggregate functions 
values(X)

Returns the list of all distinct values of the field X as a multivalue entry. The order of the values is lexicographical.  Multivalue stats and chart functions 
var(X)

Returns the sample variance of the field X.  Aggregate functions 
varp(X)

Returns the population variance of the field X.  Aggregate functions 
See also
 Commands
 chart
 geostats
 eventstats
 stats
 streamstats
 timechart
 Functions
 Evaluation functions
Answers
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This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk^{®} Enterprise: 8.1.2, 8.1.3, 8.1.4, 8.1.5, 8.1.6, 8.2.0, 8.2.1, 8.2.2, 8.1.1, 8.1.0
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