Impact (Consequence)

The following are Consequence values.

Brute Force

Used in cases where an application or an algorithm allows an attacker to guess passwords in an easy manner.

Cross-Site Scripting

Cross-Site Scripting vulnerabilities allow a third party to manipulate the content or behavior of a web application in a user's browser, without compromising the underlying system.

Different Cross-Site Scripting related vulnerabilities are also classified under this category, including “script insertion” and “cross-site request forgery”.

Cross-Site Scripting vulnerabilities are often used against specific users of a website to steal their credentials or to conduct spoofing attacks.

DoS (Denial of Service)

This includes vulnerabilities ranging from excessive resource consumption (for example, causing a system to use a lot of memory) to crashing an application or an entire system.

Exposure of Sensitive Information

Vulnerabilities where documents or credentials are leaked or can be revealed either locally or remotely.

Exposure of System Information

Vulnerabilities where excessive information about the system (for example. version numbers, running services, installation paths, and similar) are exposed and can be revealed from remote and, in some cases, locally.


Covers vulnerabilities where a user session or a communication channel can be taken over by other users or remote attackers.

Manipulation of Data

This includes vulnerabilities where a user or a remote attacker can manipulate local data on a system, but not necessarily be able to gain escalated privileges or system access.

The most frequent type of vulnerabilities with this impact are SQL-injection vulnerabilities, where a malicious user or person can manipulate SQL queries.

Privilege Escalation

Covers vulnerabilities where a user is able to conduct certain tasks with the privileges of other users or administrative users.

This typically includes cases where a local user on a client or server system can gain access to the administrator or root account, thus taking full control of the system.

Security Bypass

Covers vulnerabilities or security issues where malicious users or people can bypass certain security mechanisms of the application. The actual impact varies significantly depending on the design and purpose of the affected application.


Covers various vulnerabilities where it is possible for malicious users or people to impersonate other users or systems.

System Access

Covers vulnerabilities where malicious people are able to gain system access and execute arbitrary code with the privileges of a local user.


Covers various weaknesses, security issues, and vulnerabilities not covered by the other impact types, or where the impact is not known due to insufficient information from vendors and researchers.